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Last updated: 19 April 2022

Solar PV

Why Is a Solar PV System a Great Option for Your Home?

Using solar energy will benefit you, your home, the environment, and the future generations to come. Solar energy is a versatile, renewable resource that can be utilised in many different ways. For instance, when producing electricity, heat, and warm water solutions.

The UK is one of the top 5 countries in Europe when it comes to the use of solar energy and installations of solar panels, and the use of green energy continues to grow. This should not come as a surprise because, since 2011, the UK has set an ambitious goal to supply 15% of the country’s energy demand from renewable resources (under the Renewable Energy Roadmap programme) by 2020.

The conversion of solar power into usable electricity is an interesting process that takes place through the use of different systems and technologies. The most commonly used system for converting solar power is the Photovoltaic system, also known as ‘Solar PV’.

Solar PV has been covered under the Feed-in Tariff in the UK. However, as solar panels have become more affordable, the government has decided to close the scheme as they are now much more affordable than they used to be.

How to Find the Best Solar Panels in the UK (Cost & Efficiency Guide 2021)

What Is Solar PV?

Solar PV converts the light from the sun directly into electricity using an array of solar panels. These solar PV panels consist of multiple solar cells that work together to convert the energy from the sun into ready-to-use electricity. Solar cells are typically very small, and each one is capable of producing a certain amount of electricity. However, combining them into a module of about 40 solar cells each, and assembling those into a solar PV array, solar PV panels have a much greater efficiency; enough to cover your entire household’s electricity needs.

1 1: The solar panels convert sunlight into DC electricity. 2 2: The DC electricity from the solar panels are wired through a DC-switch. The DC-switch is there for safety reasons and it can be used to turn off the flow of electricity if needed. 3 3: The DC electricity then goes through a solar inverter that inverts the electricity from DC electricity to AC electricity. 4 4: Using solar battery storage is optional. Note! Solar batteries always store DC electricity. You can decide if you want to connect the battery before the inverter so you store DC electricity directly, or if you want to connect it after the inverter, which means the battery will re-convert it from AC back to DC. 5 5: From the solar inverter, the AC electricity flows through an electricity meter. The electricity meter measures solar electricity production, solar electricity consumption, amount of electricity bought from the grid, and amount of electricity sold to the grid. 6 6: From the electricity meter, the AC electricity goes to the fuse box where it is fed into the household's electricity system. 7 7: Solar electricity can then be used within the household, for example to power lights and appliances. 8 8: The solar electricity that is not used or stored is fed to the grid. If you are registered under the Smart Export Guarantee, you can sell this surplus electricity and earn an income.
Solar Panel System

Pros and Cons of Solar PV

Solar energy comes with many advantages and very few disadvantages. Most significant, and obvious advantage of using solar energy is that after investing in solar PV, your electricity costs could be greatly reduced.


  • Solar PV uses natural and renewable energy from the sun. Meaning that, solar power is inexhaustible and can not be over consumed.
  • Solar energy is available everywhere. Hence, even though countries in the Earth’s Southern hemisphere have more potential because of the greater amount of sunny days each year, solar energy is not limited only to those areas. In fact, Northern countries are some of the biggest producers of solar energy in the world.
  • Solar energy is free. Although the installation costs might be high, after you have the system installed, you will not be charged for the energy that you use from the system.
  • Solar PV system increases the value and independence of your home.
  • Solar PV arrays work even on cloudy days. The technology of Photovoltaic system is so advanced, that a Solar PV system is able to generate energy even on cloudy days.
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It is almost impossible to point out to any drawbacks to Solar PV systems because of how functional and beneficial they are. Nevertheless, it is important to consider some things before you make a final decision.


  • The initial cost and installation of a solar panel system is quite high. However, as new technologies emerge, the cost of Solar PV systems is likely to decrease, which will lead to increased demand and use of solar panels for generating electricity.
  • They do not produce energy during the night-time hours. Hence, they are able to only produce power in the daytime, when the sun is out. However, this should not be a problem, if you have a Solar PV that is grid connected because that way you are able to store the extra energy produced during the day as a reserve and use it throughout the night, while your system is not producing any electricity. If you need hot water during the entire day and would like to convert to renewable energy, thermodynamic panels might be the solution for you.

How Much Will Solar PV Cost You?

The price of a solar PV system will depend on many factors, and, therefore, it is impossible to estimate the exact price. Usually, the total price will depend on the size and condition of the roof, roof inclination, amount of electricity required, and the size of your home. However, it is important to note that because of the competition on the market and decreasing manufacturing costs, solar PV system has reduced in price by 70% over the past few years. Following a similar trend, solar battery storage system costs less than before while improving their capacity and lifetime.

Nonetheless, to give you an idea about the approximate average price, we have created the following table below.

Solar PV Costs
Approximate Roof Space (sq m) Typical System Size (kW) Estimated Cost (£) CO2 saved over 20 years (tons)
8 1 2,500-3,000 10
14 2 3,000-4,000 20
21 3 4,000-6,000 30
28 4 6,000-8,000 40

Optimise Your Energy Consumption with a Solar PV System That Fits Your Needs

The main classification of solar PV systems is related to their dependence on the electricity network (the grid). Hence, Solar PV systems can be classified into grid-connected and off-grid systems. Which one fit your situation the best, will depend on the area your house is located, and your electricity needs.

Solar PV Systems

The first category is the most popular type of Solar PV and refers to those solar panel systems that are connected to the public grid, and, can, therefore, use electricity from an electricity provider while the panels are not producing power (at night). If your system is connected to the grid, you can sell the surplus electricity generated by your panels back to your energy supplier.

There are different solar panel system sizes, which one is best for you will depend on how big your property is and what your energy needs are.

The second type, hence the off-grid Solar PV, is also known as a ‘stand-alone system’ because it is not connected to the public grid. Such systems are well-suited for remote regions where there is no primary electricity source.

This type of Solar PV system is a convenient option since you will not need to acquire a special permit from the electricity companies. Usually, these systems can be more pricey, because they contain more component than the grid-connected version. For instance, since the extra energy cannot be sent back to the grid, you will need to have backup batteries to store the excess energy that is produced. They can be mounted both on the roof or on the ground.

Another Solar Photovoltaic system that can be used with certain devices at home, is called PV Direct. This is a very simple solar system that is connected directly to a pump or a motor, which match the voltage and amperage output of the solar panels. Thus, when the sun is out and the panels are able to produce electricity, the device will start running, and, on the contrary, when there is no direct sunlight, power is not produced and the device will be inactive.

Which Solar Panel Type Is the Best?

Apart from the varieties of Photovoltaic systems, the technologies that these systems use to produce electricity can be different, as well. The most popular solar PV technologies are Monocrystalline, Polycrystalline, and Thin Film.

Types of Solar Panels

1. Monocrystalline solar cells: these cells are made of monocrystalline silicon (mono-Si) and are recognisable by their simple, uniform appearance and external colouring. These cells have the best efficiency rates because they are made out of the highest-grade silicon. Furthermore, they are space-efficient, and have the longest lifetime of all solar panel types.

2. Polycrystalline solar cells: these cells are also made from similar silicon, but, instead, are fused into a single crystal, as they are melted and poured into a mold. When it comes to the process of making these cells, less silicon is used, and thus, costs less to produce. What’s more, even the building process is cheaper, but their efficiency is much lower than the monocrystalline solar cells. Their lifespan is also shorter and heat can affect their performance in the long-term.

3. Thin Film solar cells (TFSC): these cells are made by depositing one or more thin layers (thin film) of photovoltaic material onto glass, plastic, or metal. They can be categorised by the material that is used to coat the substrate (Amorphous silicon, Cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium selenide, and organic photovoltaic cells). The main advantages of these solar panels are that they are cheaper to manufacture and their performance is not affected by high temperatures or shading. Furthermore, their appearance is more appealing than the crystalline solar cells.

How Does Solar PV Work to Produce the Maximum Electricity?

A Solar PV system is designed to gather the solar energy in the form of sunlight and turn it into direct current (DC) electricity. When the light hits the cell, electrons are released; these electrons form the direct current.

The direct current (DC) needs to be converted into alternating current (AC), that can be used for domestic building. The conversion is achieved through an inverter that is one of the main components of Solar PV system.

Solar PV

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Valli Vishnubhotla
Written by Valli Vishnubhotla, Content Writer

Valli is a content writer at GreenMatch since 2017. She has been writing well researched articles about renewable energy, sustainability and green technologies. She has experience and knowledge about renewable energy products and stays on top of green energy trends. With over 5 years of expertise in the field, her work has been published in various media such as Entrepreneur, Business Insider, Canadian Geographic, uSwitch , and eCycle. The UK government sites have also made use of her work within their publications.